Tuesday 12 January 2021

Burning Pyres on Ghat of Varanasi: Where Death Romances With Life To Get Nirvana & Moksha

My main charm to visit Varanasi was to watch the burning pyres at Ghats of Ganges (sets of steps leading to the river bank). So one day, I packed my bag and reached there, and started to uncover the Burning Ghat of Varanasi.


Here a Death romance with Life. Varanasi is city of Moksha, and Nirvana. But to liberate the soul to achieve Nirvana, the worn-out body must first be burned. The Place Where Death Ends.


The Burning Fires At Ghats

Burning fires of the Manikarnika Ghats have been burning for thousands of years. The burning Pyres are to break the Death and Rebirth cycle. Attainment of Nirvana. I realized that there is not only one mystery, many still to discover.


Varanasi is a city where Hindus come to die. Varanasi is city, where living is searching for their own salvation in its space everyday. A city which promises salvation to the restless souls. Throughout the day, every day, there are funeral processions bringing loved ones to the Ghats.


An unfortunate fact of people wanting to die in Varanasi is that there are crowded boarding homes throughout the city full of elderly people, many of whom spend their days begging on the streets to save the money needed for funeral costs.


Varanasi is the only city in India where pyres burn 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Because the city is believed to be so sacred, the demand for funerals here is high.


Death is present here as a part of life. No wonder the people here have a carefree attitude as they understand there is no point getting worried about anything when you can see your final landing place all the time. You cannot but notice the playfulness in people and in the air, even though it is the most spiritual of places in the world.


Burning Ghats

To meet death, there are burning Ghats, where last rites are being performed almost around the clock. These are open places, anyone can go, sit and observe the rituals and contemplate what life means in the end.


It’s believed that if one is cremated in Varanasi, and their ashes are released into the sacred and purifying water of the Ganges, their reincarnation cycle will end and they will reach Nirvana. Along the edges of the river are people having a fun night out, Sadhus smoking with crowds watching, multiple religious ceremonies, and street vendors selling food and crafts.


Manikarnika Ghat

There are around 88 Ghats situated around the Ganges, with 2 being specifically used for these cremations.  They are called the Manikarnika and Harishchandra Ghats, and they carry out on average around 80 cremations per day.


Burning fires of the Manikarnika Ghats have been burning for thousands of years.The burning Pyres: Breaking the Death and Rebirth cycle. Attainment of Nirvana. I realized that there is not only one mystery, many still to discover.


The most threatening Ghat, Manikarnika (also known simply as the burning Ghat) is the place where the majority of dead bodies are cremated in Varanasi.


Hindu mythology teaches that the Ghat is especially sacred and that people cremated there receive moksha. As the myth goes, Vishnu, after several thousand years of tapasya, trying to please Shiva, to convince him to not destroy the holy city of Kashi when he destroys the world, managed to do so.


Lord Shiva along with Parvati came to Kashi before Vishnu to grant him his wish. Vishnu dug a kund (well) on the bank of Ganga for the bath of the couple. When Lord Shiva was bathing a Mani (Jewel) from his earring fell into the kund.


Hence the name Manikarnika (Mani: Beads Karnam: Ear Angad: Ornament). There is another myth about the Ghat: the ear jewel from lord Shiva fell down while he was dancing angrily, which fell on the earth and thus Manikarnika Ghat formed.


Why Cremation?

If one dies or is cremated in Varanasi, the soul will be released from the ongoing cycle of rebirth. After death, Hindus believe that the soul must be released from the body in order to achieve re-incarnation. Cremation is the only way to achieve this, with the fire acting as a purifying agent, releasing the soul from the skull of the body.


Throughout the day, every day, there are funeral processions bringing loved ones to the Ghats. An unfortunate fact of people wanting to die in Varanasi is that there are crowded boarding homes throughout the city full of elderly people, many of whom spend their days begging on the streets to save the money needed for funeral costs.


Karma, Moksha, and Nirvana

Karma is a major factor here, with followers of the Hindu religion believing that the soul faces rebirth after rebirth, though through different forms each time as a result of how you lived your previous life.


Now, the ultimate aim of every Hindu is to achieve Moksha, meaning an end to the rebirth cycle, an end to Karma, allowing the soul to finally reach Nirvana.


The only way to achieve this is to be cremated and have your ashes scattered in holy waters.  The Ganges is considered to be the most sacred of rivers, therefore each year, thousands upon thousands have their wishes granted by being cremated at the burning Ghats of Varanasi. 


The Doms

The Doms are the caretakers as such, of the Ghats, and their role is to protect the ever-burning flame at the Temple.  This flame is believed to have been created by Lord Shiva, and has been burning for over 3500 years!


The Doms provide the cremation packages, which includes the purchasing of essential wood that is needed to burn the bodies, and assistance during the rituals (sometimes the Doms have to give the skulls a bit of a whack during the cremation in order for the soul to be released properly!)


After attending fires all night, workers (Doms) on the sacred burning Ghat take a tea break as another body is prepared for cremation in the background. Burning pyres run 24 hours a day, all year long, just downstream from the bathing ghats in Varanasi.


The Burning Pyre

The eldest son or male family member is then required to light the pyre from the ever-burning flame which then starts the cremation fire. The eternal flame that feeds the fires is said to have been burning for centuries now. Once the cremation is complete, the ashes are then scattered into holy waters, whereby Moksha can be achieved.


Here, the eldest son or family member receives a head shave, for purposes of showing respect for the deceased, preparing him for his new role as family leader, and also to get rid of any arrogance or vanity.


For a lot of people across the Indian subcontinent, standing in the Ganga and praying with their hands folded is a dream come true – a mission accomplished before they die.


My two days stay passed away as a dream. Filled with memories of the Burning pyres on Ghat of Varanasi, where Death romances with Life. People of Varanasi don’t wish to hurry up; they are fine with what they do. They are bindaas in nature and always think that Lord Shiva will take care of them. This ends the blog “Burning Pyres on Ghat of Varanasi: Where Death Romances with Life to Get Nirvana & Moksha”.

The End


Disclaimer–Blogger has prepared this short write up with help of materials and images available on net. Images on this blog are posted to make the text interesting. The materials and images are the copy right of original writers. The copyright of these materials are with the respective owners. Blogger is thankful to original writers.

Friday 8 January 2021

The Curse of Timur's Tomb: Prophecy That Changed The Course of World war ii

Timur’s Tomb is engraved with two inscriptions that contribute to the myth and legend of the curse.


The first inscription is written on the tombstone, and says “When I Rise From the Dead, The World Shall Tremble”.

The second one is located inside the tomb, and says “whosoever disturbs My Tomb Will Unleash an Invader More Terrible than I’.


In his lifetime he conquered and governed an empire of 4.4 million square miles (to put that in perspective, that’s the size of the Roman Empire at its greatest) and massacred more than 17 million people. Timur built the pyramid out of 70,000 human skulls.

Tomb of Timurlane

 Timur’s Tomb And World War II: His Tomb Was Opened By Stalin: The Curse Fell Upon Him

One thing that other tombs do not have, and Timur’s have, a curse that allegedly changed the course of World War II. When Stalin opened it, not once, but twice during the worst war in the history of mankind. The second when he returned the remains to the tomb. Here is how?


Stalin ordered anthropologist and historian Mikhail Gerasimov to open the Timur’s Tomb in 1941. At the time, Gerasimov was a known and popular anthropologist famous for reconstructing a face from a skull. His job was to do that with Timur’s skull, and Mikhail succeeded.

Tomb of Timurlane opened on June 20,1942

 Soviets opened the Tomb on June 20, 1942. The tomb was immediately filed with odor of camphor, resin, rose and frankincense. Research showed that the odor was coming from the oils used for embalming.


Two days after the Soviets opened the Tomb, Hitler and Nazis invaded Russia on June 22 1941.The invasion came without formal declaration of War. The operation was known as “Operation Barbarossa”.


It is worth noting that three elder men warned Gerasimov and the Soviets that the Tomb is cursed and something might happen.


The men told the Soviets that the curse takes effect after 3 days. The Soviet Union suffered numerous defeats at the hand of Hitler. And even though the Nazi were far from conquering Russia, they made progress.


Then, after few months, Stalin started believing in the curse, and ordered that the remains of Timur be returned to the Tomb. Stalin ordered that the process is done with full Islamic burial rights.


The Soviets returned the remains to the tomb in December 1942. Nearly a month later, the Nazi surrendered and Stalin won the Battle of Stalingrad. The battle remains as one of the bloodiest in the history of mankind, not just the World War II.


Nader Shah of Iran Too Faced The Curse

Nader Shah took away the stone adorning Timur’s tomb. At that time, the stones that were laid on the upper side of Islamic structures were decorated, and the actual coffin would be kept in the lower area.


Timur’s tomb too was adorned with an expensive stone; In 1740 Nader Shah took the stone away to Iran where it was unfortunately broken into two parts. It is said; post this Nader Shah’s ugly phase began. On being advised by his well wishers, Nader returned the stone on his coffin and the situation became normal.


According to one legend, the tomb stone was brought to Persian commander Nadir shah, who used the slab as a footing for his throne. After that, there was an earthquake in Iran, and the shah himself was overcome by illnesses. Nadir shah decided to put the tombstone back to it place, but while being transported, it was broken.


Who Was Tamerlane?

Timur was born in 1336 near the city of Kesh in Transoxiana. This historic Persian city is now known as Shahrisabz in modern day Uzbekistan.


During his mid-twenties, Tamerlane was crippled by injuries to his right leg and right hand. Legend states that he was shot by arrows when his band of thieves was ambushed by a shepherd.


It is more likely that the injuries were sustained in battle when he was a soldier for the Khan of Sistan (in north-east Iran).


He assumed the title of great khan in 1369, and he immediately started a campaign to make the Mongol empire as big as it was during the reign of Genghis Khan. One of the most horrific actions of Timur is the pyramid he built in north India.


He lived for 68 years, building the biggest dynasty after Genghis Khan. His tomb represents and important piece of the history and culture of the Persian-Mongolian architecture. The tomb or the mausoleum where Timur lies is the precursor for later architectural tombs.


During his reign, 17 million people fall victim to the Timur Dynasty. His empire spread through Eastern Turkey, Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, India, Russia and Turkmenistan.

Human Skull Pyramid made by Timurlane

Timur’s Invasion of India (1398-1399): Defeats the Sultan of Delhi.

In 1398, and at the age of 62, Timur was now a legendary conqueror with a vast territory. He turned his army toward India in the south-east


Timur started his expedition from Kabul in August 1398 and reached Delhi in December 1398. On his way to Delhi, he captured and looted all the towns. Timur ordered a general massacre and plunder which continued for 15 days.


Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi used war elephants covered with chain mail to terrify Timur’s troops. In a stroke of cruel genius, Timur placed hay on the backs of camels, set the hay on fire, and prodded them until they painfully charged at the elephants.


The elephants turned and stampeded their own troops, granting Timur an easy victory. The population of Delhi were massacred.


Timur started his back journey from Delhi in January 1399. On his way he plundered Meerut, Hardwar, Kangra and Jammu. Before leaving India, he appointed Khizr Khan as governor of Multan, Lahore and Dipalpur.


Timur’s cruelty grew in his later years. After destroying Delhi, he turned west. Legend states that his invasion of Baghdad (Iraq) in 1399 required each of his soldiers to show him two severed heads.


Timur Defeated Ottoman Emperor Bayezidon And kept Him in a Gold Cage

Years of insulting letters had passed between Timur and Bayezid. Both rulers insulted each other in their own way while Timur preferred to undermine Bayezid's position as a ruler and play down the significance of his military successes.


In the fateful Battle of Ankara, on 20 July 1402, the Ottoman army was defeated. Bayezid tried to escape, but was captured and taken to Timur. Sultan Bayezid was captured and dragged back to Samarkand kicking and screaming. There, he was allegedly subjected to a variety of imaginative humiliations — from Timur using him as a foots tool to being put on display in a golden cage.


When Timur saw Bayezid, he laughed. Bayezid, offended by this laugh, told Timur that it was indecent to laugh at misfortune; to which Timur replied: “It is clear then that fate does not value power and possession of vast lands if it distributes them to cripples: to you, the crooked, and to me, the lame.”


Bayezid was the only Ottoman ever to be captured by an enemy. He died in captivity in 1403, after allegedly being kept by Timur in a golden cage as a trophy


The Biggest Mistake Of Timur: He Attacked China In Winter.

The biggest mistake Timur made was to try and conquer China. At the time, China was ruled by the Ming Dynasty. The mistake was that Timur tried to conquer one of the biggest countries in the world during winter.


Right up until his death, Timur continued to expand his empire. The leader of the new Chinese Ming Dynasty had insulted Timur, provoking his wrath. However, after three months of successful battles, the campaign ended when Timur succumbed to fever and died.


Samarkand had been trading with Ming China for a long time, but Timur had grown tired of being treated like a vassal. For example, when a message from China arrived in 1395 calling the Ming emperor “lord of the realms of the face of the earth” (implying he was but an earthly ruler), and treating Timur like an inferior.


He decided to detain the Chinese messengers. When China dispatched more envoys to find out what happened to them, Timur supposedly imprisoned the second batch as well.

While he normally embarked on his expeditions in the spring, in order to take advantage of good weather, he bucked his own trend and departed Samarkand in December 1404 with an army of approximately 200,000 troops. His chief astrologers had told him that the stars were in favourable alignment. What could go wrong?


Unfortunately for Timur, the stars turned out to be more favorable for China than they were for him. He fell ill on the frosty banks of the Syr Darya River in Uzbekistan and died at 68 years old — possibly of cold — in February 1405.


With no leader to inspire a victory, Timur’s army decided to turn around and head back home. The fearsome conqueror was embalmed in fragrant oils and placed in an elaborate ivory coffin for the journey to his final resting place, in Samarkand, his treasured city.

The End

Disclamaire :---The above historical paras are taken from various articles available on net. Blogger has no claim over this short write-up, He is thankful to all original writers. Photos too are taken from sources to add visual beauty with thanks. 

Friday 1 January 2021

Artificial Intelligence: The Fastest Growing Job Opportunities of 21st

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving.


Some features of our Smart mobiles and computer,face recognition ,speech recognition  are example of simple Artificial Intelligence.

Today, Artificial Intelligence is a very popular subject that is widely discussed in the technology and business circles. Many experts and industry analysts argue that AI or machine learning is the future – but if we look around, we are convinced that it’s not the future – it is the present.


Some of the fastest growing job opportunities across all industries include “Artificial Intelligence”, data analysts, software developers and social media specialists.


Plus jobs that require “human skills” like sales and marketing, innovation and customer service are also expected to increase in demand. Some of the jobs that are expected to go away include data entry, payroll and certain accounting functions.


The Artificial Intelligence industry is booming right now. Skilled professionals are very much in demand. Here is a short career guide to the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI).


For artificial intelligence to move forward, there are a number of steps to the construction process that need to be followed. There are as many manufacturing phases as there are jobs that don’t exist yet—or that have only recently been created. These jobs will be in high demand in coming years.


Personal data broker: information that’s worth its weight in gold

Once artificial intelligence arrives in our homes, a personal data broker analyses the data it collects and is in charge of reselling it to interested companies.


Personal data, which we’ve heard a lot about recently, has become essential to companies and their marketing departments. Personal data makes it possible to personalize advertising campaigns and target a selected community in an extremely precise way. It’s worth noting that a data broker doesn’t collect data directly from the consumer.


They buy data from big companies that collect it, such as Facebook or Google, and then resell it to interested companies. The broker takes the raw data and increases its value by processing it and getting results from cross-referenced analysis. They then supply reports that allow clients to adapt their offers by using the collected data.


Becoming a data broker requires a solid background in the world of finance or cryptocurrency. The job is, in some ways, an evolution of the role of a trader. In-depth knowledge of Big Data is obviously a big advantage.


It is extremely difficult to look into the future, even the near future, but one thing is almost certain: artificial intelligence has a bright future ahead. It is looking increasingly likely that young people who want to specialise in this field will have plenty of choice for a future career.


AI in demand but 2,500 jobs remained vacant in 2019, says report.The number of AI professionals in the country has almost doubled from 40,000 in 2018 to 72,000 by end of 2019 and more than 3,000 companies claim to work on AI projects of some or the other kind in 2019, a growth of 200% over 2018, the report stated.


As Artificial Intelligence continues to make its way through Indian industries, the demand for skilled AI professionals will increase in the near future.


As of now, the shortage of the right talent in the field only means that employers are ready to shell out very high compensation to acquire qualified professionals with AI skills. So, if you aspire to build a promising career in Data Science and AI, the time is now!


City-wise remuneration comparison reveals that Mumbai is the highest paymaster at almost ₹17 lakh per annum, followed by Delhi/NCR at ₹15.6 lakh. Chennai on the other hand, is the lowest paymaster at ₹10.8 lakh.


This year, almost 39% of AI professionals in India are employed with large-sized companies (more than 10,000 employee base), 29% with mid-sized organisations (employee base range of 200-10,000) and 32% with startups (less than 200 employees).


IBM India, Accenture, Nvidia Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, Ernst & Young, Genpact, Amazon, eClerx Services, and Capgemini emerged as the top 10 organisations that have contributed to the demand for AI professionals this year, according to the report cited above. Almost 92% of job openings in AI are full-time and rest are part-time, internships, or contractual jobs.


Educational and Knowledge Requirements for Career in Artificial Intelligence

As for the skills and knowledge, an aspiring AI professional must possess in-depth knowledge in the following domains:


If you’re enthralled by AI and wondering how to get started, then the first and foremost step is to hold a Bachelor’s degree in mathematics and computer science, Information Technology. However, most of the time, a Bachelor’s degree only lands you an entry-level position, but it will at least get you started.


Computer Science: Coding expertise with popular programming languages such as Python, Java, Julia, Lisp etc.

Physics, engineering, and robotics.

Mathematics: Algebra, calculus, logic and algorithms, probability, statistics.

Bayesian networking (including neural nets)

Cognitive science theory.


Senior-level job roles (managerial/administrative or R&D roles) require a candidate to have a master’s degree or a Ph.D. in the fields mentioned above or any other related field (Engineering).


So, once you get into the industry and understand how things work, you can plan your future career. Talking about positions entailing supervision, leadership or administrative roles, you need to have a Master’s degree or a Doctoral degree.


Artificial Intelligence Salary Packages in India

Artificial intelligence salary in India is one of the highest packages offered in the country. How much you are worth will depend on your skills, experience, and the city where you are based.


Artificial Intelligence salary for freshers in India starts at around Rs. 6 LPA and can stretch up to Rs. 12 LPA, with higher-end salaries usually offered by reputed companies like Amazon, Flipkart, Google, Facebook, etc.


As for Machine Learning roles, the starting salary for freshers is generally Rs. 8 LPA, and it can go up to Rs. 10-15 LPA, depending upon the job role, skill set, and educational background. Candidates who have strong foundational knowledge in Data Science and a few years of work experience can earn as high as Rs. 17 LPA.


The annual salary packages of artificial intelligence job roles also vary according to location. While Mumbai leads the game by offering the highest Artificial Intelligence salary in India (Rs 15.6 LPA), Bengaluru follows suit with Rs 14.5 LPA. Chennai offers the lowest salary package for artificial intelligence talents in India standing at around Rs. 10.4 LPA.


Here are a few top-ranking AI job profiles with their respective average annual salaries:

Principal Data Scientist – Rs. 17, 11,180

Computer Scientist – Rs. 16, 24,615

ML Engineer – Rs. 9, 50,000

Data Engineer – Rs. 8, 35,755

Data Scientist – Rs. 6, 99,928

Research Engineer – Rs. 6, 52,230

Algorithm Engineer – Rs. 5, 40,220

Data Analyst – Rs. 4, 97,550

Computer Vision Engineer – Rs. 4,50,000

Some of the biggest recruiters of AI professionals in India are Fractal Analytics, Deloitte, IBM, Accenture, Amazon, LinkedIn, Citrix, Verizon, SAP Labs, Nvidia, Tech Mahindra, Flipkart, and Myntra.


The real influencer of your salary is the skills you have, the mastery you have attained over them, and how quickly you grow and make the company grow as well. Artificial intelligence salary is depended on so many factors.

The End