Saturday, 18 January 2020

The Tragic End of Marie Antoinette: The last queen of France

The Tragic End of Marie Antoinette: The last queen of France
Marie Antoinette (1755–93), was the last queen of France who helped provoke the popular unrest that led to the French Revolution and to the overthrow of the monarchy in August 1792.

She was the youngest daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa, born 1755.Marriage was arranged between Marie Antoinette and Louis XV’s grandson to create and hold an alliance between Austria and France.

Marie Antoinette became a symbol of the excesses of the monarchy and is often credited with the famous quote "Let them eat cake," although there is no evidence she actually said it. As consort to Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette was beheaded nine months after her husband by order of the Revolutionary tribunal. She was 37 years old.
Marie soon became involved in the extravagance of French court life, attending lavish balls and gambling. Her husband, however, shied away from public affairs. The couple would not consummate their marriage until seven years later – this became a popular matter of discussion and ridicule both at court and among the public.

King Louis XV died on 10 May 1774 after contracting smallpox. Marie, who was not yet 19 years old, became Queen of France when her husband inherited the throne as King Louis XVI. Marie gave birth to the couple’s first child, Marie Thérèse Charlotte, in December 1778.

Marie Antoinette

King Louis XVI and the French Revolution

France experienced poor harvests during the 1780s, which consequently increased the price of grain, and the government faced mounting financial difficulties. As a result, Marie’s lavish lifestyle at court came under attack. Numerous pamphlets and satires were distributed across the country demonstrating peoples’ disgust towards the queen’s extravagant spending.

King Luis xi of France

During the French Revolution, the monarchy deteriorated and in 1789 the royal family was eventually imprisoned in their own palace. Marie had planned to flee France with her family and return to her birthplace of Austria, but they were captured during the attempt and taken prisoner.

The French Revolution completely changed the social and political structure of France. It put an end to the French monarchy, feudalism, and took political power from the Catholic Church.
It brought new ideas to Europe including liberty and freedom for the commoner as well as the abolishment of slavery and the rights of women.
Although the revolution ended with the rise of Napoleon, the ideas and reforms did not die. These new ideas continued to influence Europe and helped to shape many of Europe's modern-day governments.

Louis XVI’s policy of not raising taxes and taking out international loans, including funding the American Revolution, increased France’s debt, setting in motion the French Revolution. By the mid-1780s the country was near bankruptcy, which forced the king to support radical fiscal reforms not favorable with the nobles or the people.
Louis XVI declared the Assembly null and void and called out the army to restore order.Public dissension grew, and a National Guard formed to resist the King's actions.By July 1789, he was forced to acknowledge the National Assembly's authority.

On July 14, riots broke out in Paris and crowds stormed the Bastille prison in a show of defiance toward the King. The day is now commemorated in France as a national holiday and the start of the French Revolution.
For a time, it seemed that Louis XVI could soothe the masses by saying that he would accept to their demands. However, he accepted bad advice from the nobility's hard-line conservatives and his wife, Marie Antoinette. He talked of reform but resisted demands for it
King Luis xi and Queen Marie Antoinette
Escape Attempt of Marie Antoinette
The royal family was forcibly transferred from Versailles to Paris on October 6, 1789. Louis ignored advice from advisers and refused to abdicate his responsibilities as king of France, agreeing to a disastrous attempt to escape to the eastern frontier in June 1791. He and his family were brought back to Paris, and he lost all credibility as a monarch.
Execution of Queen Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed for treason. Louis had failed to address France's financial problems, instigating the French Revolution that eventually descended upon him.

He made matters worse by often escaping to more pleasurable activities like hunting and locksmithing. Modern historians attribute this behavior to a clinical depression that left him prone to paralyzing indecisiveness.
On September 21, 1792, the Legislative Assembly proclaimed the First French Republic. That November, proof of Louis XVI's secret dealings and counter-revolutionary intrigues was discovered, and he and his family were charged with treason. Louis was soon found guilty by the National Assembly and condemned to death.

Trail of Marie Antoinette

Louis XVI was guillotined in the Place de la Révolution on January 21, 1793. His wife, Marie Antoinette, met the same fate nine months later, on October 16, 1793. Their young son, Louis-Charles, died in prison where living conditions were horrible. Daughter Marie-Thérèse was released from prison in December 1795 into the custody of her family in Austria.


Note---this storythe tragic end of marie antoinette: the last queen of France”,has been prepared with help of various articles and photos available on net,with great thanks to original writers.
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Monday, 6 January 2020

Travelogue of Ajmer: The City of Spirituality.

It is an old saying that:--“Only he travels to Ajmer, who are called by Khawaja Saheb”. Perhaps it was a call of Holy sprit from Ajmer”, that I was in a holy trip of Ajmer the city of spirituality.

After a shower, we came down stairs, out side Railway station for lunch. In a near by hotel we took our lunch.  During travelling I prefer vegetarian meal .Wow the same Rajasthani style of meal. Chapatis (bread) soaked in desi ghee.

An Arial view of City Ajmer from Tragadh Fort

Do you know: Even the first contacts between the Mughals and the British occurred in Ajmer when Sir Thomas Roe met with Emperor Jahangir here in 1616?

Taragarh Fort.
Taragadh Fort is most spectacular monuments in Ajmer, which should not be missed by any tourist. Taragarh is the main hill looming over the city of Ajmer.
The fort on top of this hill dates back to at least 11th century AD and came to be known as Taragarh fort. During the Mughal and Sultanate period, there were many wars that were fought here and the fort served as a key military base

Now it is known for the dargah of Miran Shah, a governor who was killed in one of these wars at the hands of Rajput warriors.
He is refereed to as shaheed and it is his mazaar that many pilgrims come to visit. This is Ajmer's little hiking spot. The view from the hill makes a visit to Taragarh fort worthwhile.The bird's eye view of the city below is a vantage point that stays in your memory.After one hour stay and offering fateha on mazar shareef of Hazrat Miran Shah (R.A), we hired a shared taxi and back down in city.
From Roads of Ajmer
Ana Sagar Lake.

Legend of Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti (R.A).When the saint Khawaja Moinuddin Chish
ti (R.A) arrived in Ajmer, he and his followers were banned from using water from Ana Sagar. He requested to get a cup of water that was granted.

When the cup was filled the water of the lake got dried up miraculously. People requested to return the water, the saint gracefully did so. Since then Moinuddin Chishty got multitude of followers.
It was constructed by Anaji Chauhan, the grandfather of Prithviraj Chauhan by excavating as a dam on in early 12 Th century as a dam on river Loni.The lake carries its name from Anaji.

We then headed towards the Ana Sagar Lake; the beauty of the lake was accentuated by the setting sun. The lake also has a boating option; however we decided to just enjoy the beauty from the sides. We could also see a small group of local musicians playing Qawwali.

It was a perfect time to be on this lake. People from all walks of life were having the pleasure of sitting and walking on the garden or on the banks. The reflections on the surface of the water were creating a mesmerizing spells.

Bara Dari of Ana Sagar Lake

We stood motionless for some time and admired the beauty of the nature. The silhouette against the setting sun was absolutely picturesque. I felt that sometimes, cameras cannot capture the real beauty and colorful display of the nature.

We saw people throwing bread-crumbs, rice flakes and other edible items into the lake. Immediately, we guessed the presence of fish in the lake.

At that time, a small group of young children was sitting on the banks of the lake and singing a “quwwali” in the name of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti alias Garib Nawaz.

Qawwali in Bara Dari of Ana Sagar Lake

When we came out of the Ana sagar Lake, it was a perfect time for an evening snack. The street food stalls, that we had avoided so far, ultimately dragged us into their charm of spicy mouth watering Pni Puri, Dal Kachauri and finally cold and sweet ice cream with faluda.

The day gets ready for a gorgeous end as the powerful sun rays turn in to warm cover for the cold breeze.

Dargah of Hazrat Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti (R.A)

Born in Afghanistan in 1156, Khwaja Muin-ud-Din Chishti (R.H), India’s most revered Muslim saint began his religious career at the age of 13.

Dargah-Hazrat Khawaja Moinuddin Chishti (R.A) in Ajmer

On his travels, he soaked up the teachings of the great Central Asian Sufis, whose emphasis on mysticism, ecstatic states and pure devotion as a path to God were revolutionizing Islam during this period. Khawaja Sahib and his disciples settled in Ajmer at the beginning of the thirteenth century.

Our next destination was “Dargah Sharif” for which Ajmer is famous. We hired a three wheeler. Distance of Dargah sharif and Ana Sagar is about 2 Km.He left us at Delhi gate, and told us we could walk straight to the Sharif shrine ahead.
When I looked at the crowd my resolve wavered but we somehow proceeded to the entrance. I could see a lot of threads tied to the jali. You come back and untie them if your wish comes true.

I was carrying my small backpack which had my camera, a few lens and all valuables. A back pack or any other luggage is not allowed. The lady police at the entrance of the Nizam Gate was very polite and friendly. She told to deposit all goods with camera out side.

As I was walking barefoot my feet were a mess. But there is a water tank inside where you can clean your feet before entering the main shrine and I happily freshed my wazoo to physically purify for a Fateha, Dua and Namaz.
It is my faith that it is power of Allah to grant “yes” to wishes and duaen of evry human. I offered my Fateha on grave of Khawaja saheb, asked Allah to make true my wishes .Ameen.

Now it was time of isha prayer, I entered in masjid adjacent to main shrine chamber .This was a beautiful masjid built by Gt. Moghul king Shahjahan.

If you have time, make sure you attend a ‘qawwali’ (musical performance) at the dargah, usually held on every Thursday and Friday evening. These melodious performances include verses sung in praise of the Prophet and various Sufi saints.
It is bad habbit of officials and care takers of Dargah to ask and exchange mony at every step. I did’t obliged them.This tradition must be banned.It leaves a bad impression of spiritual places.

I cold’t stop my carving of a non veg foods .All hotels were full of devotees; we waited few minutes to get seats.we ordered  Butter chicken , chiken fry ,chicken masala biryani and tandoori roti. Food was taisty and spicy.
Dinners are incomplete without some sweets. We stopped on a sweet shop. It was difficult to choose a sweet from dozen varieties of sweets; we ordered “Ras malaee” ,and packed famous Hawa Sohan of Ajmer. Hired an auto and reached retiring room at railway station for night stay.
Second Day

We had half day more to stay in Ajmer. Our next destination From Ajmer was Jaiselmer.We decided to see Adhai Din ka Jhopra , which is situated near dargah.

Adhai Din ka Jhopra
The Adhai-Din-Ka-Jhonpra, The two and half days Masjid, legend said the constructed was constructed in 2.5 days.

Dhai Din Ka jhopra-in Ajmer

According to legend, after defeating Prithviraj Chauhan in the Second Battle of Tarain, Shahabuddin Ghori passed through Ajmer. There he ordered his slave general Qutb-ud-Din-Aibak to construct a Masjid — all within 60 hours (that is, two-and-a-half-days).

The artisans could not build a complete Masjid in 60 hours time, but constructed a brick screen wall where Ghori could offer prayers. Another theory says that this mosque hosts a two-and-a-half-day fair and hence the name, but no one really knows how this name came.  By the end of the century, a complete mosque was built.

Railway Station of Ajmer

End of itinerary of AJMER...Next destination Jaiselmer. The train to Jaiselmer was scheduled to depart at 1.30 P.M. packed our luggage, stepped down at platform in wait of train.
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Friday, 27 December 2019

Diary of young Girl Anne Frank: Secrets of Second World War

Who Was Anne Frank
Anne Frank was a German-Jewish teenager. She was Born Annelies Marie Frank on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany, to Otto and Edith Frank. He was forced to go into hiding in Nazi-occupied Amsterdam, Holland during the Holocaust.

Anne Frank’s father Otto Frank had been a lieutenant in the German army in World War I and then became a businessman. Anne's sister, Margot, was three years older.

Shortly after receiving a diary for her 13th birthday,Anne Frank started recording entries on June 14, 1942, and she continued writing down her impressions while confined with her family and four other fugitives as they hid behind a bookcase in a concealed attic space in her father's office building.

Fleeing Nazi persecution of Jews, the family moved to Amsterdam and later went into hiding for two years. During this time, Frank wrote about her experiences and wishes. In 1945 the family was found and sent to concentration camps, where Frank died at the age of 15.
She was designated to be erased from the living, to leave no grave, no sign, and no physical trace of any kind. Her fault—her crime—was having been born a Jew, and as such she was classified among those who had no right to exist: not as a subject people, not as an inferior breed, not even as usable slaves.

One month before liberation, not yet sixteen, she died of typhus fever, an acute infectious disease carried by lice. The precise date of her death has never been determined.

The house ,where Anne Frank with her family was caged in 

She and her sister, Margot, were among three thousand six hundred and fifty-nine women transported by cattle car from Auschwitz to the merciless conditions of Bergen-Belsen, a barren tract of mud.
The “Diary” Anne Frank received for her 13th birthday was actually an autograph book.
It was first published in Germany and France in 1950, and after being rejected by several publishers, was first published in the United Kingdom in 1952. The first American edition, published in 1952 under the title Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, was positively reviewed.
The book was successful in France, Germany, and the United States, but in the United Kingdom it failed to attract an audience and by 1953 was out of print. 

It’s most noteworthy success was in Japan, where it received critical acclaim and sold more than 100,000 copies in its first edition. In Japan, Anne Frank quickly was identified as an important cultural figure, who represented the destruction of youth during the war.


Its immense popularity inspired award-winning stage and movie versions.

Otto Frank in the attic of Anne Frank House,Amsterdam,1960.Arnold Newman Collection

The young girl's entries were made in the form of letters to several imaginary friends and she also employed pseudonyms to conceal the identities of her fellow fugitives and accomplices. Like many other normal teenagers. 

Anne agonized over her conflicted feelings about her family and a possible romantic interest, as well as her evolving thoughts about life. But her extraordinary depth and fine literary ability, combined with her optimism in the face of such adversity made her account a literary and historical treasure.


"It's a wonder I haven't abandoned all my ideals," she wrote shortly before her arrest. Anne was a lively and talented girl, expressing her observations, feelings, self-reflections, fears, hopes and dreams in her diary. Her words resonate with people all around the world."
Yet I cling to them because I still believe, in spite of everything, that people are truly good at heart… I see the world being slowly transformed into a wilderness; I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too.


I feel the suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more.
Anne would end up spending two years and one month closeted in the hideaway, before the group was betrayed and sent off to concentration camps. Of the eight persons in hiding in the attic, only her father would survive. Anne succumbed to typhus in Belsen-Belsen in March 1945. She was just fifteen.
A family friend later retrieved the diary from the attic and presented it to Anne's father after the war. Upon reading it, Otto Frank persevered to get it published.
  
To date the book has sold more than 30 million copies in 67 languages. The original manuscript was bequeathed to the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation.

The End

Note—This blog has been written with help of different materials, sources, articles and photos available on net with thanks.

Tuesday, 10 December 2019

Third Battle of Panipat:That Changed History of India


Panipat is 90 Km away from Delhi. Three battles were fought here. Third battle of Panipat has great significance in the history of sub continent.

This Battle was a colossal defeat for the Marathas, after this battle colonial rule starts in Indian sub-continent. Third battle of Panipat is a core example of foreign invasion.

The Third Battle of Panipat was a major battle of Indian history, fought on 14th January 1761.

It was fought between the Afghan forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali, the king of Afghanistan along with his local Rohilla and other Pathan and Oudh allies, against the Maratha Empire, which were the main actors to scuttle the Mughal rule and tried to take over the Mughal crown.
It was the time in which the glory of Mughal Empire was about to fade away, other powers in sub-continent were emerging in order to replace the Mughal rulers.

French, British, Sikhs, Marathas and other independent groups were rising to claim the throne which was about to be vacated by Mughals due to their inefficiency and apathetic behavior.  

Ahmed shah Abdali invaded India many times. Ahmed Shah invaded Punjab for the first time in January 1748 then in 1750, 1751, 1753, 1756, 1757, 1758, and 1759. The third battle of Panipat starts when Ahmed Shah Abdali invades India in 1759. Afghan army enters India in 1759 in Karnal without any apparent resistance by this time Marathas had captured Delhi. 
But when Afghan forces gradually started to approach towards center, skirmishes started between Maratha and Afghan forces. 

This was the time when both forces started making allies and partners and perceived war as a final and inevitable solution in the shape of Panipat battle. Sikhs, Jatts, Rajputs, and Nawabs of Oudh, Bengal, Mysore, etc were tried to win over by both the sides. 

Since Marathas had strained relations with almost all other groups so it helped them very little in this regard, whereas, Ahmad Shah won support of Shuja-uddin- Duala, Rajputs, and Jatts.

The main factor which strengthened Afghans was the support of Muslim rulers such as Najib-ud-Daulah and Shuja-ud-Daulah. In 1760 Afghan forces marched to Shahdara near Delhi river Jamuna divides both armies on each side.

Marathan army was led by Sadashiv Rao cousin of Marathan Peshwa Balaji Bhaji Rao on the other hand Afghan army was led by Ahmad Shah Abdali. 

Ahmad Shah Abdali

The course of battle starts on 27th March 1760 when Marathan army begins its advance from Deccan to reach Delhi and in October they reached Delhi. 

This was the time when small conflicts occurred between them. On 23rd, 24th October Afghans crossed Jumna River and reached Bhagpat. On 26th October Afghans drove Marathan forces to Panipat ground.

Ahmad Shah Abdali took his position 5 miles south to Jumna River and created a complete blockade of Marathan camps. Skirmishes continued till November. 

Ahmad did not make any advance on Marathan forces albeit it was continuously advised by his allies to finish of the enemy.

Marathas wanted to make settlement with Afghans but allies did not accept their proposal.Due to the failure of negotiations it made Marathas desperate and they launched a sudden offensive upon Afghan forces on 6th January 1761.
It was the day when conclusion of this battle was drawn; Ahmad Shah Abdali kept his nerves and composure and handled this sudden attack professionally.

Initially Marathan forces got edge due to their surprising attack and movement but very quickly Afghan army led by French trained general Gardi was able to overpower them.

Sadashiv Rao was killed and Marathas faced a complete defeat by Afghan invaders, which paralyzed Marathan power for next 10 years.

This, Third battle of Panipat was victory of invaders. Defeat of Marathas cleared the way for later British supremacy and fall of Moghul Empire,that changed history of India 

Note:---This blog and photos are based on various sources available on net,and taken with thanks.

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Thursday, 5 December 2019

Life in Web of Likes: Obsession on Social Media

A 'like' has the power to change our entire mood? Why do we get So obsessed with 'Likes' on Social Media?

Now like is not only a simple word,it relates our social status.In this era of social media, we are obsessed for a likes.Our social status depends that how many likes we are getting on the posts and selfies at facebook,twitter, or Instagram.

This is obsession to count comments and likes on social media.Some of them feel depression over less likes,and loose self confidence. This chasing of likes and comments attitude are because,we have less time for off-line activities
People honestly believe that their popularity and self worth all stem from the count of likes that they receive on their selfie and posts. Before social media, our sweet memories were silently stored in album.
I believe that many of us are wasting precious energy of life online and as a result forgetting to nurture our real, off-line life.

Some people are so obsessed With 'Likes' on Social Media, that they purchase Apps to get more likes and followers.

Very rarely, you will see people sharing or discussing their low phases of life in social media. So in social media, only one side of the story is shown. Which is not a good message for someone who is going through a low phase in life?

 Remember: all that glitters is not gold

Social media is spoiling relationships and life. Everyone has problems in their life but no one writes about it in the social networking sites. if you check your facebook profile, then you will end up believing that the whole world is celebrating and is very happy and prosperous. but that is not the case in reality. its a wrong projection and many people in the world are feeling emotionally low by spending time in such sites.
The silver line attitude for obsession on likes in social media

I am ending with a note to get rid of this obsession of getting more likes and notes on virtual on-line life.Try to be liked by your family members, friends and neighbours of your real off-line life.
 To know that what we like and think and believe is enough and that no need of a mouse click to validate that.
Your worth is not measured in likes, comments, notes or followers; but in your ability to love, keep comments to yourself. It’s important to be comfortable in our own thoughts and feelings.

Note---The photos in this blog are taken with thanks from various sites on internet

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Friday, 22 November 2019

Travelogue of Jaisalmer: An Oasis in Thar Desert

The finely sculptured monuments in Jaiselmer city have successfully retained all its glory, cultural diversity, vibrant glory and the richness of a bygone era. Be it the camel safaris, the ascetic beauty of the surrounding, the city reflects the timeless beauty of a legacy left behind by the rulers.At the end of your tour of Jaiselmer,you will realize that;Jaiselmer is an Osis in Thar Desert.
Railway Station of Jaisalmer
At about 11.15 P.M, train entered in station of Jaisalmer. It was a desolate station of Jaisalmer .no porter to lift and carry our luggage.Retiring room of Jaiselmer was on first floor. Any how we lifted luggage and kept in our rooms.We were were hungry.

Jaiselmer Fort-(Sonar Quila)

Again surprised to see that Jaiselmer station has only a small tea stall without food items, only tea biscuits and bread. This tea stall opens only at arrival and departure time of a train.No option so we took tea and bread as dinner.

Retiring room was well maintained, after a shower I laid down upon my bed to sleep.Next morning after refreshing we came down stairs to tea stall for breakfast.It was about 9A.M. There were few local groups of men and women ,searing colorful costumes ,were sitting on floor of platform.They seemed  me as banjara tribes.
History of Jaisalmer
The name of Jaisalmer evokes a vivid picture of sheer magic and brilliance of the desert Jaisalmer is a beautiful city near the Thar Desert. The border to Pakistan is 100 kilometers away:

The city was established in the 12th century (year 1156 AD) and gets its name from its founder Maha Rawal Jaisal who founded it.

An Aerial View of city Jaisalmer from Sonar Fort

According to the local legend, Rawal Jaisal, the eldest son of the Rawal of Deoraj, was passed over for the throne of Ludharva (15 kms from Jaisalmer) by his younger half-brother after which he went on a search for a safe location to establish his capital.

He came across the massive rock that rose almost 250 feet from the surrounding desert sands. Rawal Jai singh constructed here a mud fort around the rock and named it Jaisalmer after himself.
Over the year the remote location of Jaisalmer kept it almost untouched by outside influence and even during the days of the Raj, Jaisalmer was the last to sign the Instrument of Agreement with the British.
Gadesar Lake of Jaisalmer, in deep Thar desert. 
This Lake in the city of Jaisalmer is one of the primary tourist attractions of the region. A view of this beautiful lake freshens up the mind and soul of the travelers.  In the bone melting heat of Jaisalmer desert it is hard to imagine a peaceful pond with temples, shrines, ghats, trees such as Gadisar Lake.

Gadesar Lake-Jaiselmer

A number of birds belonging to rare species that make a stop over this place to have a few drinks out of these sparkling clean waters of the lake. Here I spent most memorable few hours of my life and clicked few most beautiful clicks from camera.

This lake was built in 1400 A D by Maharwal Gadsi Singh in the middle of desert, the lone water resource for the city of Jaisalmer before modern water pipelines arrived.

Gadesar Lake-Jaiselmer

Bada Bagh
After visiting Gadesar Lake, We hired a taxi for Bada Bagh, situated atop a hill, 6K.m away from the desert city of Jaisalmer; travelers will find a romancing calm setting of this place.  I find it difficult to narrate the quiet isolation beauty mixed with a romancing experience of Bada Bagh

Bada Bagh-Jaiselmer

The chhatris appear to sprout from the very rocks they are built on and since they are the same color as the landscape around them, also appear like a mirage.
The towering windmills in the distance only add to the fantastic photo-ops the area has to offer and I find it rather tough to put my camera away. Giant wind turbines hum in unison interspersed around the domed roofs shading the sandstone and marble markers.
After a beautiful mesmerizing trip to Bada Bagh, we decided to back in city market for lunch. There were dozen hotels around Gandhi Chowk area of Jaisalmer.We entered in a hotel, ordered thali meals, Gatte ki sabzi, kadhi, curd and desi ghee soaked chapattis with pickles and sweet. It was a delicious but heavy meal for us due to Desi ghee.

Around market, I clicked some local and road side views. I found people of Jaisalmer a friendly to camera, they liked to be clicked.
Jaisalmer Fort (Sonar Fort)
The first view of the Jaisalmer Fort(it is popular by name of Sonar fort or Sonar Quila) was a sight I will remember till my last days; a massive fort built in yellow sand-stone rising out of the flatland “like a mirage in the desert”, its ramparts glowing in shades of gold in the rays of the morning sun, Sonar Fort is a spectacle in every sense.
The houses are built in the same architectural style that merges with the old structure of the fort. Even the houses outside the fort are built mostly with sand stones with the same distinctive Rajasthani architecture that transported us to an altogether different period of time. 
 There are temples where conch still blows every morning as it did 500 hundred year ago, homes and havelis where people go on with their lives as they have been doing for centuries.It is this liveliness apart from its ethereal beauty, which makes the Golden Fort.
 We were walking on roads, lanes and by lanes inside fort .It is Interesting that local families were living inside houses on both side .They were doing their domestic works as we passed through. 
Ladies were cooking food, children were playing. Some of them have converted their one living room or verandas as handicraft shops.
At one place inside fort, we saw marketing area, selling sweets, fruits, antique items.Some local were maintaining live painting studio in their houses.
 I was amused to see bhang shops (a mild preparation of marijuana) inside fort area. On that bhang shops many foreigners were sitting in opane of bhang .This area was a gift for photography. 
Kothari’s Patwa Haveli
Out of Jaisalmer Fort, we found my self in market court having restaurants full of sweets and rajasthani food stuffs.Tired hungry and thirsty; entered in a one of them. Treated us with hot kachauries, sweets and malai qulfi .After recharging full with fresh energy,we moved towards Kothari’s Patwa Haveli.

Kothari's Patwa Haweli-Jaiselmer

Guide told us a story of this place as:--when the Patwas were struggling to set up their trade and business. On the advice of a priest at the Jain Temple, the patwa brothers left Jaisalmer with the intention of never returning (they were advised by the priest that their business could not flourish in Jaisalmer).
The legend has it that the patwas were immensely successful thereafter and their business spanned across banking & finance, silver, brocade and opium trade.


Eventually, patwas rose to such heights that they were called upon to finance the state deficit. This brought the clan back to their old habitat. The then head of the family, Ghuman Chand Patwa, decided to gift each of his five sons a separate and elaborate mansion, ignoring the advice of the priest. Thus came up the five grandiose havelis facing the Jailsamer Fort.
Unfortunately, the lives of the patwas took a ‘u’ turn after their return to Jaisalmer and their fortunes started dwindling. Consequently, they had to abandon the city-state again, leaving the havelis at the mercy of care takers. The care takers became the owners in the course of time and decided to put the havelis up for sale.
You will notice individual depictions and theme on each and every arch. Although the whole building is made yellow sandstone, the main gateway of the Patwon Ji ki Haveli is in brown color.

I came out of the haveli complex completely mesmerized, with memories in my canon camera, my best companion. Returned back in retiring room for rest.
The End