Wednesday 19 April 2023

Kösem Sultan-kidnapped by Ottoman Raiders, as a Slave in Bosnia: Queen of Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I. Her Tragic End.

Kösem Sultan (1589 1651), also known as Mahpeyker Sultan, was Haseki Sultan of the Ottoman Empire as the chief consort and legal wife of the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I, valide sultan as the mother of sultans Murad IV and Ibrahim, valide sultan as the grandmother of Sultan Mehmed IV.

She oversaw 3 generations of the Ottoman Empire

Upon ascending to the throne, the triumphant new Sultan would shout his first decree, usually something like “All my brothers are to be immediately killed.”

Princes Ahmed and Mustafa lived together in the Golden Cage. When Ahmed became sultan, he did not have the heart to murder his brother, but he did keep Mustafa in the Cage-with just a few women.


Ahmed built a wall to block the entrance, leaving a small window through which food was passed to Mustafa, as well as alcohol and opium.


Fourteen years later, this same wall was hammered down, and the utterly demented Mustafa was declared sultan.

Background of Kösem Sultan

In 1604, at the age of 14 or 15, she was kidnapped by Ottoman raiders and bought as a slave in Bosnia by the beylerbey (governor-general) of the Bosnia Eyalet. She was tall, slender, and appealing woman due to the whiteness of her complexion and the deep brown of her eyes.

Kösem Sultan

Her beauty and intelligence were noticed by the kızlar ağa of Sultan Ahmed I's court, who sent her to Constantinople to join a group of other slave girls marked by their striking appearance or intelligence to be trained in the harem of Sultan Ahmed I as an imperial court lady.


Kösem rose to prominence early in Ahmed's reign as part of a series of changes to the hierarchy of the imperial harem.

Slave Market

She was instrumental in putting an end to the centuries-old practice of fratricide in the Ottoman Empire by convincing Ahmed to spare his brother Mustafa.

Ahmed favoured Kösem above all his concubines, lavishing on her the finest jewels and a stipend of 1,000 aspers a day. 

Slave Market

During the reigns of Ahmed I, Mustafa I, Osman II, Murad IV, Ibrahim and Mehmed IV, Kösem gained both notoriety and affection among her subjects, wielding unparalleled political power and influencing the empire's foreign and domestic policy.

On Ahmed's early death (1617), Kösem became the head of a faction that successfully supported his half-brother Mustafa's accession to the throne.


She probably feared for her sons' life, should their older half-brother, Osman, become sultan. She probably preferred to see Mustafa become sultan as he was less likely to see her sons as a threat.

In the Ottoman Empire, the fratricide culture was at its peak at the time.

When Ahmed’s father Mehmed III ascended to the throne, he executed all his nineteen brothers. In 1603, he also executed his eldest living son Şehzade Mahmud, leaving only two of his sons, Ahmed I and Mustafa I as his heirs.

Ottoman Sultan Ahmad I (Kösem Sultan was his queen)

Kösem was fifteen years old when she became the favorite of fifteen- year-old Ahmed 1.

Ahmed ruled from 1603 to 1617, leaving Kösem a young widow. Mustafa was released from the Cage, to become sultan, while Kösem’s own sons, Murad, Beyazit, and Ibrahim, took his place there.


Reign of Mustafa I (Brother of Sultan Ahmad I)

Kösem, the widow of Ahmed I and mother of Murad IV was in league with the eunuch corp. Kösem and the eunuchs ruled through the mentally disabled Mustafa, while the Janissaries ruled through Osman II… whom they decided they didn’t like after all, and killed.

Mustafa I

As only the second sultan (after Ahmed I) to ascend the throne with no prior experience of government, Mustafa proved feeble and incompetent.


He had spent his entire early life in the harem, learning only what the eunuchs and women could teach him, and constantly fearing execution at the hands of the ruling sultans, with several palace officials, particularly the Chief Black Eunuch Mustafa Ağa, nourishing these fears to control him.


Eventually, Mustafa Ağa spread stories that he was insane and secured his deposition on 26 February 1618, just 96 days after he ascended the throne.

He was replaced by Osman, the eldest son of Ahmed I and his deceased mother Mahfiruz Hatun.


Reign of Osman II

Osman's first act as sultan was to take power away from Mustafa's supporters, as well as those who had secured his accession and planned to rule over him.


As a result, Kösem and her eight children and entourage were banished to the Old Palace. Nevertheless, Kösem was able to maintain her haseki status and daily stipend of 1,000 aspers during her retirement.


While at the Old Palace, she had the opportunity to meet Safiye Sultan (grandmother of Sultans: Ahmed I and Mustafa I)

Osman II

In 1619, Osman acted against Ottoman convention by paying Kösem a three-day visit at the Old Palace and taking part in her festivities, thus showing his particular affection for her.


He also gave Kösem the income from eight villages to the north-west of Athens; she then incorporated them into her waqf, which provided services to pilgrims traveling from Damascus to Mecca.


His uncle Mustafa was kept alive, as were Osman's younger brothers, protected by Kösem, who were at this time not old enough to pose a threat to Osman's regime.


In May 1622, sensing that Osman might still execute Mustafa and his younger brothers, the eunuch corps and the palace soldiery planned a counter-strike, backed by Mustafa's mother, Halime Sultan, and Kösem, who wanted her own children to ascend to the throne.


Storming into the harem, they freed Mustafa from confinement in the Kafes.


As for Osman, aged only seventeen, he was imprisoned in Yedikule, then strangled by members of the Janissary corps on 20 May 1622, largely through the efforts of Halime.


Halime Sultan was a consort of Sultan Mehmed III, and the mother of Sultan Mustafa I.

The first woman to be Valide Sultan twice. Halima lived in the Ottoman Empire as a courtier during the reign of six Sultans: Murad III, Mehmed III, Ahmed I, Mustafa I, Osman II, and Murad IV. 

Halima Sultan

Second reign of Mustafa I

In place of Osman, the weak and incompetent Mustafa was restored to the throne with the support of Kösem.


During the closing months of Mustafa's second reign, he ordered the execution of everyone involved in Osman's death, including Kösem's sons.


But before his orders could be carried out, both Kösem and the eunuch corps intervened and deposed him again. 

Kösem eventually reached an agreement with the viziers to install her son Murad as sultan. Mustafa would go on to spend the rest of his life in the Kafes.


Kösem Sultan as Valide sultan: Reign of Ottoman Sultan Murad IV

Murad IV was, son of Sultan Ahmed I and Kösem 


He was brought to power by a palace conspiracy when he was just 11 years old, and he succeeded his uncle Mustafa I. Until he assumed absolute power on 18 May 1632, the empire was ruled by his mother, Kösem Sultan, as nāʾib-i salanat (regent

The reign of Sultan Murad IV, known as the conqueror of Baghdad, is notable for halting the prevailing lawlessness and rebelliousness while restoring the authority of the state


Kösem entered the Topkapı Palace with a great ceremony which included having a thousand dervishes marching with prayers to celebrate her forthcoming. 

Ottoman Sultan Murad IV

She was once again thrust into the political arena when her son ascended to the throne in 1623 as Murad IV. Since he was a minor, she was appointed not only as valide sultan but also as official regent


As regent, Kösem effectively ran the empire through her son, Murad, attending and arranging divan (cabinet) sessions from behind a curtain. She was in charge of appointing political figures and overseeing the state's administration, which allowed her to establish connections with statesmen, judges, and other court figures.

Called Murad the Mad, though probably not to his face, the 17th sultan was just a lad of 11 when he began his reign, although his mum did much of his homework as his regent until he turned 20.


He used to hang around taverns at night in disguise, trying to snare a drinker having a crafty smoke. Once the unsuspecting drinker lit up his pipe, the sultan would suddenly reveal who he was and cut down the unlucky smoker there and then by his own hand


After catching a gardener and his wife puffing away, he had their legs cut off before the pair were wheeled around the capital on the back of a cart, so the public could watch them bleed out in agony.


He also didn’t like people getting too close to the palace walls, personally shooting people that did so. It was the sultan’s prerogative to take at least ten innocent lives per day, and he almost always did.


He once came across a group of women singing in a park and drowned them there and then because he didn’t like the din they were making. 

His musician played a Persian melody that upset him greatly so he cut his head off. Having ordered the consumption of coffee to be illegal, he executed anyone who drank it and even likewise for alcohol despite the fact that he was a raging alcoholic himself.


A group of singing women were drowned because they disturbed his peace and he often forced the harem women to jump naked into a pool while he fired pellets at their bodies.


Mad Murad’s reign did not last long, and he died at the early age of 27 from cirrhosis of the liver.

Rumours had circulated that on his deathbed, Murad IV ordered the execution of his mentally disabled brother, Ibrahim (reigned 1640–48), which would have meant the end of the Ottoman line. However, the order was not carried o


Reign of Mad Ibrahim: (The Mad Sultan on to the throne).

After Murad’s death Kösem promptly placed Ibrahim.Of Kösem's last surviving sons, the mentally unstable Ibrahim, lived in fear of being the next of his brothers to be executed by Murad.


Following Murad's death at the age of 27, Ibrahim was the sole surviving prince of the dynasty. When the Grand Vizier Mustafa Pasha asked him to assume the sultanate, Ibrahim suspected Murad was still alive and plotting to trap him.

It took the combined persuasion of Kösem and the grand vizier to make him accept the throne. For instance, Kösem ordered his brother's corpse to be displayed before him and even threatened Ibrahim with 'strangulation, not inauguration' if he refused to be crowned sultan.


With the accession of Ibrahim, Kösem once again became politically active as his principal advisor.

However, she enjoyed a less compatible relationship with the Grand Vizier Mustafa Pasha than she had with the grand viziers of Murad's early reign.

Ibrahim was in no shape to rule a nation. Odd to begin with, it didn’t help that he had spent his entire life living as a prisoner in the golden cage, staring longingly out the unreachable stained glass windows.


Inside the prince was kept company by a few deaf-mute servants, and a couple of harem girls, barren ones, to prevent him from fathering possible heirs to the throne. (The servants were, by default, prisoners as well.)

Ibrahim also lived under the constant and reasonable fear of deaf-mute eunuchs throttling him with a silk rope. So it makes sense that when guards showed up to bring him to the throne, he refused to go, thinking it was a trick.


Ibrahim wouldn’t even open the door until Murad’s body was produced. When Ibrahim was finally convinced that he was not about to be garroted to death, he ran deliriously through the halls screaming “the butcher is dead”, “the butcher of the empire is dead.” 

Suddenly out of the cage and the supreme ruler of an enormous empire, Ibrahim barely knew what to do with himself. While his mom did most of the actual decision making, Ibrahim busied himself with his new harem.


He first decorated his room with mirrors so that he might get a better view of himself in action. He then called the girls in.


One time the Mad Sultan saw the beautiful daughter of the Grand Mufti, the empire’s highest religious authority, and asked for her hand in marriage.


Her father, aware of Ibrahim’s depravities, urged his daughter to decline. So the Mad Sultan ordered her kidnapped and carried to his palace, where he ravished her for days, before returning her to her father. 

Ibrahim’s harem was full of young, nubile, girls from around the world. But after a while, the slender things from Russia and the Balkans didn’t do it for him anymore.


One day Ibrahim happened to see the genitalia of a female cow.

Pleased by what he saw, Ibrahim had a gold cast made and, hoping to find a human match to the bovine privates, he ordered his aides to “bring him the fattest woman in the world.”

They did their best, finding a 300 pound Armenian girl named “Sugar Cube” (Sechir Para or more literally translated “Sweet Lump of Sugar”).


Ibrahim loved her, and spent many a night curled in her large arms. It wasn’t long until the big woman had gained power over Ibrahim equal only to that of her girth.

It would be Sugar Cube who would spell the final downfall of Ibrahim the Mad.

Sugar Cube told Ibrahim that a member of his concubine was sleeping with an outsider and conspiring against him. The paranoid Ibrahim, decided to clean house and had the majority of his harem, some 280 girls, tied up in sacks and drowned in the river.


This worried his mother Kösem, who was actually ruling the foundering empire. Concerned about Sugar Cube’s rising power, she in turn had Sugar Cube strangled. The palace was indeed a rough place.


They knew her everywhere as “the Filthy Sultana.” One day one of her many enemies caught up with her and poisoned her coffee with chopped hair and ground glass, causing a long and painful death.”) 

With permission from Kösem, the Grand Mufti whose daughter Ibrahim had had his way with, lead the overthrow.


Between heavy taxes, the mismanaged wars, and with a Venetian blockade reducing the Ottoman capital to starvation, discontent boiled over. In 1648, a popular revolt broke out, and an angry mob tore Ibrahim’s Grand Vizier to pieces.


Ibrahim was deposed in favor of his 6 year old son, and a fatwa was then issued for the Mad Sultan’s execution, which was carried out by strangulation.


Ibrahim was deposed, sent back to the golden cage, and 10 days later his worst fears were realized at the hands of a deaf-mute eunuch wielding a silk rope. This time Ibrahim met his end gleefully, assuming that the guards were there to replace him as Sultan.


Reign of Mehmed IV seven-year-old grandson of Kösem

On the same day that Ibrahim was dethroned, Kösem presented her seven-year-old grandson, Mehmed, to the divan with the words: "Here he is! See what you can do with him!"


When some government official insisted that he be sent to be enthroned and receive the Janissaries' and sipahis' (cavalryman) oath of allegiance at the Blue Mosque, Kösem demanded that they instead come to the palace, pointing out that no sultan had ever been enthroned in a mosque before. 

7 year old Young Sultan Murad IV

Her purpose was undoubtedly in part to force the situation so that she could have some influence over the outcome.


Murder of Mad Sultan Ibrahim

Ten days after Ibrahim's dethronement, the newly appointed Grand Vizier Mehmed Pasha asked the Şeyhülislam Abdürrahim Efendi for a fatwā sanctioning Ibrahim's execution which was granted, with the message: "If there are two caliphs, kill one of them."


Kösem expressed the fact that only she could make the final decision whether the sultan lived or died, exclaiming: "They said my son Ibrahim was not suitable for the sultanate. 

killing of Sultan Ibrahim

I said 'depose him.' They said his presence is harmful, I said 'let him be removed', and then I said 'let him be executed.' If anyone is under my protection, it is my son."


"It being an ancient custom that upon the accession of a new sultan the mother of the previous sultan remove to the Old Palace and thus give up her honored office, the elder valide requested permission to retire to a life of seclusion.


But because the loving mother of the new sultan Mehmed IV was still young and truly ignorant of the state of the world, it was thought that if she were in control of government, there would result the possibility of harm to the welfare of the state.


Therefore, the elder valide was reappointed for a while longer to the duty of training and guardianship, and it was considered appropriate to re-new the assignment of crown lands to the valide sultan."


Thus Kösem was reinstated as regent by Mehmed's council and was entrusted with his training and guardianship.


Rivalry with Turhan Sultan Mother of Mehmed IV

Mehmed's mother, Turhan Sultan, was presented to Kösem as a gift from Kör Süleyman Pasha, the Khan of Crimea, when she was around 12 years old, so it was presumably Kösem who offered Turhan to Ibrahim as a concubine.

Turhan Sultan (Mother of Sultan MEHMAD IV)

The post of valide sultan and regent should have gone to Turhan when her son Mehmed became sultan, but she was passed over because of her youth and inexperience.

Turhan must also have resented the stipend of 2000 as pers that she received in comparison with Kösem's 3000 aspers and so she began to assert what she saw to be her rightful authority.


Assassination of Kosem Sultan

In a certain irony, Kösem’s reign would finally come to an end at the hands of another woman. Her daughter-in-law and Mehmed’s IV mother Turhan had Kösem killed and started her own rule of the Ottoman Empire. (She was the only other woman besides Kösem to officially rule the Ottoman Empire.)

On the 16th day of Ramadan, the night of 2 September 1651, the Chief Black Eunuch Süleyman Ağa and his armed men, consisting of over 120 armed black and white eunuchs, descended on the palace in support of the sultan, proceeded to Kösem's quarters, which was guarded by over 300 armed Janissaries and loyal black eunuchs.

Murder of Kösem Sultan

Süleyman Ağa and his men managed to kill some of the guards, while the majority fled. Hearing the commotion, Kösem thought the Janissaries had arrived, so she called out, "Have they come?" "Yes, they have come", Süleyman Ağa answered, hoping to deceive her.


When Kösem recognised his voice, she began stuffing her jewels into her pockets and fled along the Golden Way and through the Court of the Black Eunuchs to the Dome with Closets, probably hoping to escape from the palace through the Carriage Gate.


Black Eunuch

The gate was locked, so she crept into a small cabinet, hoping that Turhan's eunuchs would pass her by and that the Janissaries would come to her rescue.


Eventually Kösem was betrayed to a halberdier by a piece of her dress that protruded from under the cabinet door. Dragged out by one of her assailants, she told him, "O brave man, be not cruel unto me", while tossing gold coins onto the floor as a distraction.


One of the men then held her down, while they seized her garments, jewellery, bracelets, garters and other valuables.


Kösem was then dragged by her feet to the gateway leading from the harem into the Third Court, where Süleyman Ağa ordered his men to kill her. A group of four men, all of them young and inexperienced, then strangled her with a piece of cord ripped from the curtains.


Then, assuming she was dead, they screamed out, 'She is dead, she is dead!' and went to notify the sultan and his mother.

Painting OF Kösem Sultan 

The next morning, Kösem's body was taken from Topkapı Palace to the Old Palace (Eski Sarayı) to be washed.


The Black Eunuchs immediately took up the Corpse, and in a reverent manner laid it stretched forth in the Royal Masjid; which about 400 of the Queens Slaves encompassing round about with howlings and lamentations, tearing the hair from their heads after their barbarous fashion, moved compassion in all the Court."

She was buried without ceremony in the mausoleum of her late husband Ahmed I. Her slaves were also taken to the Old Palace and eventually married to suitable Muslims with dowry money taken from her estate.

Blue Masjid( Sultan Ahmad Masjid) Istanbul

The End

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Wednesday 5 April 2023

Story of A Slave Concubine Roxolana:-Who Became Powerful Queen of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman The Magnificent

 Behind every strong man, there is a strong woman. A girl born and raised in what is now western Ukraine, was, “abducted, and snatched away. Fate dictated that she would become the wife of a Sultan.

At age 17 she was captured and taken to Istanbul. There the girl was bought by the great vizier Ibrahim Pasha and delivered in the Sultan's harem. After some time, Roxelana became a concubine and favorite who ascended the throne of Suleiman I.


The story of Hurrem Sultan is a unique facet of the Ottoman Empire’s rich history. Hurrem, also known as Roxelana, lived a life that shocked her contemporaries and still inspires fascination in modern-day audiences.


Roxelana is what she was called by the Europeans but among the Ottomans she was called Hurrem, which means joyful, mirthful.


Much of Hurrem Sultan’s early life is theoretical or simply unknown. Her name may have been Anastasia or Alexandra Lebowski or Lisowska, and she may have been the daughter of an Orthodox Christian priest. It is generally accepted that she was born between 1502 and 1506.


She was believed to have been captured by Crimean Tatars in a slave raid in the Ruthenia region of what was then part of the Kingdom of Poland, which today is part of Ukraine.


The Tatars conducted regular raids on this region, capturing people to be taken to Caffa on the Crimean Peninsula to be sold at the slave market. Hurrem Sultan was one of these people.


The Ottoman Empire owned the slave market at Caffa. From here, Hurrem would have been taken to another slave market at the heart of the Ottoman Empire itself in Constantinople. The journey took around ten days by sea.

Roxolana-Hurrem Sultan

It was at this slave market that Pargali Ibrahim Pasha allegedly purchased Hurrem as a gift for his childhood friend, Suleiman, who was the son of the Sultan.


Slavic slaves were highly valued for their pale skin and fine features, and Pasha may have known what Suleiman the Magnificent found attractive in a woman.


Hurrem is often depicted with red hair, a common feature amongst people from Ukraine, and may have been considered exotic in the Ottoman Empire’s epicenter.


Being a Christian was another factor that worked in Hurrem’s favor. It was customary for the Sultan to father sons with Christian women to avoid the dynastic struggles that might emerge if two powerful Islamic houses intermarried.


The young Ruthenian slave acquired two new names once she entered the royal household. One of these names was “Roxelana”, meaning “maid from Ruthenia”.

She was called “Hurrem”, which means “joyful”, or “the laughing one” in Persian. This name tells us a great deal about her nature and why Suleiman the Magnificent found her company so compelling.


It was Suleiman’s mother, Hafsa Sultan, who selected  Roxolana Hurrem to spend a night pleasuring her son. There were hundreds of women in the Sultan’s harem, and the likelihood of these women ever meeting the Sultan in person was slim.

In preparation for this meeting, Hurrem would have been bathed, shaved, anointed with fragrant oils, and dressed in fine clothing in order to please her master.


However their first meeting played out, fate decreed that Hurrem would spend a night with Suleiman. The combination of her fine Slavic features, her unusual red hair, her daintiness, and her joyful manner must have been a compelling combination because Suleiman called for Hurrem to join him again and again.

Suleiman already had a favorite, who was also his consort. Her name was Mahidevran Sultan, and she had given Suleiman a son.


Now that Hurrem was making a name for herself at court as the Sultan’s new favorite, one day Muhidevran took matters into her own hands and attacked Hurrem, scratching her face.


When Suleiman called for Hurrem that night, she refused to see him on account of her appearance. Intrigued, Suleiman called for her again and saw the marks on her face that Muhidevran had left.


Hurrem’s position as the Sultan’s favorite concubine was solidified even further after this incident. These events are very telling about how clever Hurrem was, and they show that she instinctively knew how to play the political game to her best advantage.

Hurrem converted to Islam, and entered the imperial harem as a slave before the year 1520 and Suleiman’s ascension to the throne.

Suleiman the Magnificent became Sultan in 1520, which was around the same time that Hurrem became his concubine.


She bore him a son, Mehmed, the following year. When Suleiman’s mother, Hafsa Sultan, died in 1534, this left a vacant position of power in the harem over which she had presided.


Hafsa’s death also meant that Suleiman was now truly independent and, therefore, able to make a decision that would change the course of history.

In 1533, something truly astonishing happened. Suleiman the Magnificent freed Hurrem from her concubinage in order to marry her. Islamic law forbade a Sultan to marry a slave, so in order to make Hurrem his queen, he had to free her.


The empire was to be shaken up once again when Hurrem bore her husband yet another son.

Prior to this, it was customary that concubines only bore the Sultan one son, so that she could then focus on her son’s upbringing and education. Yet, Hurrem and Suleiman had six children together in all, five sons and one daughter. 

When his first consort, Muhidevran, left the harem to follow her son to his first political posting (which was customary; concubines were accordingly educated to be able to advise their sons on matters of politics and religion), this left Hurrem as the undisputed head of the harem.

Eventually, in another unprecedented move, Hurrem convinced her husband to allow her to leave the harem and join him at Topkapi Palace, where she was given a suite of apartments next to his.

Love and Influence in the Ottoman Empire

When her husband was away on military campaigns, he entrusted her with keeping him informed about affairs back at home. It is even speculated that Hurrem was instrumental in having Pargali Ibrahim Pasha, who was by this time Grand Vizier and now her rival, killed due to his uncontrolled ambition.


Hurrem had to have her wits about her if she was to protect herself and her children from the plotting and intrigue of the court. It was less the case that she was cunning and more so that she was adept at doing what she had to do to keep herself and her loved ones safe.

She protected what was hers, even to the extent of throwing tantrums when fresh young Ruthenian slaves entered the harem, and having them married off to other nobles lest her husband take a liking to them.


But there was more to Hurrem than just looking after her own. Due to the level of trust between Hurrem and Suleiman, she earned herself the freedom to preside over infrastructure works in the city:--


such as the creation of public drinking and bathing facilities, charitable projects, such as the establishment of soup kitchens for the poor, and religious works, such as the building of mosques and hostels for pilgrims. Hurrem was also a patron of the arts. 

Hurrem converted to Islam, and entered the imperial harem as a slave before the year 1520 and Suleiman’s ascension to the throne.


She also used her love to exert influence over matters of state. As the sultan’s advisor and confidante, she was the first to receive the title ‘Haseki Sultan’ – the chief consort. Hurrem also managed to ensure that it was her son, and not one from the other wives or concubines, who inherited the throne.

The powerful Hurrem Sultan took an active role in internal politics and international relations, not just connected to the fate of her children. Often described as manipulative and power-hungry (she was accused of bewitching Suleiman), Hurrem was also involved in several charity initiatives.

Death of Roxelana

Roxelana did not live to see her greatest ambition, the ascension of her son to the throne, become reality. She died on April 15th, 1558 – eight years before her husband’s death, and her son Selim becoming the ruler of the Ottoman Empire. She was buried in a mausoleum in the courtyard of the Süleymaniye Mosque. 

Süleymaniye Masjid

The century that followed was to become known as the “Sultanate of Women”, one in which royal wives and mother’s wielded power via political influence over their royal men — all due to the legacy of a nameless slave.

The end

Disclaimer–Blogger has prepared this short write up with help of materials and images available on net. Images on this blog are posted to make the text interesting.The materials and images are the copy right of original writers. The copyright of these materials are with the respective owners.Blogger is thankful to original writers.